computer game

30-01-2015, 13:32Print
A computer game or video game is an electronic game in which one or more persons interact, by means of a driver, with a device provided with images of video 1 East electronic device known as «platform«, it can be a computer, a machine arcade, a games console or a portable device (a mobile phone, for example). The computer games are, presently, one of the main industries of the art and the entertainment.

To the input device used to manipulate a computer game it is known like computer game driver, or control, and changes depending on the platform. For example, a driver might consist only of a button and a joystick or joystick, while other might present a dozen of buttons and one or more levers (gamepad). The first computer games usually made use of a keyboard to carry out the interaction, or needed that the user was acquiring a joystick with a button as it mine 2 A lot of modern computer games they allow or demand that the user should use a keyboard and a mouse of simultaneous form. Between the most typical drivers the gamepads are, joysticks, keyboards, mice and touch screens.

In general, the computer games make use of other ways, apart from the image, of providing the interactivity and information to the player. The audio is almost universal, there being used devices of sound reproduction, such as loudspeakers and earphones. Another feedback font does to itself across peripheral units that produce vibration or feedback of force, the vibration being used sometimes to simulate the force feedback.


The history of the computer games has its origin in the decade of 1940 when, after the end of the Second World war, the winning potency constructed the first programmable supercomputers like the ENIAC, of 1946.3 The first attempts for implementing programs of playful character (initially you programme of chess) were not late in appearing, and The first modern computer games were recuring during the following ones décadas.4 they appeared in the 60s, and since then the world of the computer games has not stopped growing and developing with the only limit that has imposed on him the creativity of the developers and the evolution of technology

In the last years, you took hold to an age of technological progress dominated by an industry that there promotes a model of rapid consumption where the new mammoth productions remain obsolete in a few months, but where simultaneously a group of persons and institutions - conscious of the role that the pioneering programs, the companies that defined the market and the big visionaries had in the development of the above mentioned industry - has initialized the formal study of the history of video game

Generalities

Typically, the computer games recreate environments and virtual situations in that the videojugador can control one or several personages (or any other element of the above mentioned environment), to obtain one or several objective inside a few certain rules.

Depending on the computer game, a game can dispute it only one presents herself against the machine, two or more persons in the same machine, or multiple players across a network LAN or online Internet route, competing colaborativamente against the machine or between themselves.

Computer games of many fonts exist. Some of the most representative genres are the computer games of action, roll, strategy, simulation, sports or adventure.

Technology

A computer game runs thanks to a program of software (the computer game in itself) that is processed by a machine (the hardware) that is provided with devices of input and of output.

The program of software or software contains all the information, instructions, images and audio that compose the computer game. It is saved in cartridges, optical disks, magnetic disks, special memory cards for computer games, or is downloaded straight to the device across Internet.

In the decade of 1980 the habitual support for the software was the cartridge in the games consoles, and the magnetic disk or the tape of cassette in the computers. Later the CD-ROM was used, since it had more capacity that the cartridges since these had come to its technological ceiling and also it was turning out to be more economic to produce in mass. At present there is used the system DVD of high capacity and, not very often due to its high price, the Blu-Ray, of very high capacity. Nevertheless for a few years the discharge is growing from Internet, to the being a technology extended massively, of easy access and less costly than the physical disks distribution, apart from the advantages of updates, availability and of safety on having avoided losses for damages or loss of disks or keys (since the computer game will be virtually always available).

The input devices are those who allow to the player to handle the game. Although there is habitual the use of an external input device −como are the outstanding figures are a keyboard and mouse, the gamepad, or the joystick −, the portable platforms of nowadays (smartphones, tablets, pocket games consoles...) they allow to play by means of its touch screen or by means of the movement of the proper device (thanks to the use of gyroscopes and acelerómetros). Other input devices are the detectors of movement, between which they emphasize the hand devices (for example Wiimote de Wii), those of pressure (carpets or supports with sensors) and those of apprehension of images, case of Kinect de Xbox. Also it is possible to use the voice in those computer games that support it across voice processors.

The output devices are those who show the images and the sounds of the computer game: a TV set, a monitor or a projector for the video, and a few loudspeakers or earphones for the audio. The most modern teams use digital sound with Dolby Surround with effects EAX and modern visual effects by means of the last technologies in engines of computer game and units of graphic processing.

The central piece of the hardware constitutes it the CPU or mainframe computer of processing, which interprets the instructions contained in the programs and processes the data. Its capacity of processing, major in every new generation of devices, dials up the limit of the technical and graphic possibilities of the computer games.

All these devices (of input, of output, of processing...) can constitute units physically separated but connected between themselves −como is the case of the PCs or the games consoles of dessert −, or to be integrated to only one device −como happens in the mobile phones and other portable devices −.

Platforms

The different fonts of device in which the computer games are run are known as platforms. The four most popular platform fonts are the PC, the games consoles, the portable devices and the machines arcade.

The games consoles or consoles of computer games are domestic electronic devices destined exclusively to reproduce computer games. Created by diverse companies from the 70s, they have generated an immense business of historical transcendency in the industry of the entertainment. The games console excellently is a device of dessert that gets connected to a TV set for the display of its images, but pocket models exist also with included screen, known like portable games consoles.

The PC or personal computer is also a computer games platform, but as its function is not only to run computer games, it is not considered to be a games console. The PC does not log in in any generation, since every a few months there exit new pieces that modify its services. The PC can usually be much more powerful than any console of the market. The most powerful support graphic ways with resolutions and effects of graphic postprocessing very superior to any console.

The recreational computer games machines are available in public places of diversion, shopping centers, restaurants, bars, or specializing recreational lounges. In the 80s and 90s of last century they enjoyed a popularity high degree on having been then the most advanced platform font technically. The technological progresses in the domestic platforms have supposed at the beginning of the XXIst century a certain decline in the use of the machines arcade.

The portable games consoles and other devices of pocket are provided with the aptitude to reproduce computer games. Between the above mentioned it emphasize nowadays the mobile phones (in particular the intelligent phones) that, and the computer games are not its primary function, have been incorporating them as its technical services have been increasing. Another portable device of increasing popularity in the last years there are the tablets.

The computer games can qualify in genres attending on factors like the system of game, the font of interactivity with the player, its targets, etc. The evolution of the computer games from its beginning has given place to an increasing and changeable genres variety, often as regards what the advances in the technology have been making possible. Between the most popular computer games genres they are of action, strategy, roll, adventure, jigsaw puzzle, simulation, sports or careers, each of them with several subgenres. On the other hand, nowadays there are habitual the computer games that take elements of more than one genre, what has given place to mixed genres (for example roll - action, adventure - action, etc.).

Along with the genres, there exist other ways of classifying or of characterizing the games as it can be for its subject-matter (fantastic - medieval, futurist, of war...), its complexity (games AAA, chance games...), its purpose (educational, promotional, artistic...), etc.

Multiplayer

In a lot of games it is possible to find the multiplayer's option, that is to say, that several persons could inform simultaneously in the same game, there is already using all the same machine (as it usually happens with the games consoles) or using each one your own device (the habitual case in the PCs or portable devices, in what it is known as computer games online). There exist games in which a human player faces against other players controlled by the machine, by means of artificial intelligence, but in this case it is not considered to be that a computer game is a multiplayer. Finally, there are computer games that are thought to congregate to a big number of players of the whole world connected across Internet, they are the acquaintances like computer games MMO (of massively multiplayer on line).

Development


Developers use several hardware to create computer games.
The computer games development is the activity by which it is designed and creates a computer game, from the initial concept up to the computer game in its final version. This is a multidisciplinary activity, which it involves professionals of the computer science, the design, the sound, the performance, etc. The process is similar to the software creation in general, although it differs in the large number of creative contributions (music, history, design of personages, levels, etc) necessary. The development also changes according to the platform target (Personal Computer, mobiles, consoles), the genre (strategy in real-time, RPG, graphic adventure, platforms, etc) and the form of display (2d, 2.5d and 3d).

Across the time, the computer games have been viewed like a font exclusive entertainment for young persons. But this conception has been changing since studies have demonstrated that the social phenomenon of the computer game does not limit itself only to this sector of the society. In a study (Climbing vine, David et to. (2009)), investigators thought about how to prove científicamente the above mentioned thought. To know the customs of the adults in Spain with regard to the computer games, the investigators realized 974 surveys with elderly of thirty five of years of which 914 were valid. The results of the above mentioned surveys endorsed the hypothesis of the investigators. The study in short showed that: The computer games are implanted by singular intensity in the set of the Spanish population. More than half of the Spanish older than 35 years (53,5 per cent) plays with computer games (well in a sporadic way well in a habitual way).8

Psychological effects

The effects that the habitual use of computer games could have in the persons, and especially in the children, have been an object of interest and of controversy.

Between the positive effects that assume to them such capacities are like: "coordination tint - manual, logical capacity, special capacity, problem solving, development of strategies, concentration, attention collaboration, cooperation, discrimination and selection of excellent information, auditory stimulation between others».9 According to a study, the child develops mental skills and its reasoning capacity is more active in comparison to an it has been 20-year since-old child it was not provided with this technology. In adults they can work like a stress liberator, contributing to the good one salud. Others affirm that they improve the health visual11 and even certain skills as for example the necessary ones for practice of surgery. It is necessary to point out also that the effects change according to the game 9 font A professor of the University of Nottingham also has affirmed that they can have the effect of attenuating pain.

As for the negative aspects of the computer games, it is necessary to indicate factors as the addiction. The easy access to computers, smartphones and consoles, added to an absence of control on the part of the parents or the ambience of a disfunctional hearth, it can give place to that children or adolescents make an excessive use of the computer games. It has negative effects as the being is more inclined to the aggressiveness, lacking in assertiveness and under output it academize.

Another controversial aspect of the computer games in the children is that they can brake some aspects of its motive development, and drive to an absence of socialization, although it is refuted the above mentioned by other studies that point at everything opposite, to which the computer games zoom in its sociability.

As educational hardware

Diverse experts have indicated the value of the computer games as hardware to inculcate knowledge. Gros, B. and its collaborators (1997) write: "We think that the computer games constitute a computer material of big pedagogic value», and enumerate a series of features:

It is processed as materials with a capacity of very high motivation.
They improve the procedural aspects of the work of the students.
They are very flexible since they can be used in different subjects and in a transverse way.
They provide elements to improve the self-esteem of the pupils.
It is a material that is at disposal both of the pupils and of the professorship.
The educational games present themselves in the last times as an alternative to the violent computer games. There even exists a collection of games which mask turns «the intelligent alternative to the violent computer games».

In spite of the positive questions, there must be born in mind all those negative aspects, like the unlimited and not watched use, as well as the engagement absence, responsibility or effort with activities that are not related to the game. For it, the ideal thing is not to lose of sight that although the computer games are according to the entertainment, they are used like hardware to make possible or to promote learning, which will be achieved any time a good use and control exists on the part of the users or the persons in charge of these.

Criticism

The computer games, like other forms of audio-visual expression, have woken up controversy between persons or groups who think that they have or can have pernicious effects on the players. Between these they argue for example the effects that there can have in the emotional development the fact of spending too much time before the screen and of being disabled completely in a fantasy universe. There exist also cases of addiction to gambling and of cyberaddiction. Also a possible promotion of the violence is argued, graphically present in many computer games. On the other hand, it has been proved that the rapidity with which the graphs move can provoke attacks in the persons who endure diverse epilepsy fonts.

The defenders of the computer games argue that most of criticism arise from the ignorance, from a generational phase lag or from religious-political influences, [required appointment] and affirm that, in general, the computer games enrich the life of the player, teach him to solve technical problems, and stimulate its neuro-kinetic skills, visual reflexes and approach of multiple (objective) points of vision. [required appointment] they Even support that they improve the communication when one plays in family or online. [required appointment] The computer games are used also like entertainment in clinics and hospitals, as well as in certain rehabilitation therapies. [required appointment] Also there are academic and educational faculties that use the computer games to upgrade skills of the pupils. [required appointment] At present has overcome the idea that the computer games are infantile and for children, since there exists an enormous variety faced to publics' different fonts.

In case of the children, the supervision of the adults is important, so much to prepare an excessive use as to prevent from playing inappropriate computer games for its age (in this respect the boxes of the computer games usually include some tag or indicative when they contain images of violence or sex explicit).

A study area exists, the ludología, which deals with these and other aspects of the computer games, the players and the interaction between both.

Popular magazines

  • Photoshop Creative from Issue 149, 2017

  • Filmfare from 22 February 2017

  • Linux Format UK from February 2017

  • Mojo from March 2017

  • Android Advisor from Issue 34, 2017

  • Computer! Totaal from Maart 2017

  • Webuser from 8 February 2017

  • Personal Computer & Internet from Issue 171, 2017

  • PC Professionale from Febbraio 2017

  • Entertainment Weekly from 3 February 2017